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What genetic testing methods exist?

genetic testing methods

In recent decades, the amount of genetic tests performed has increased significantly, as it has been discovered the valuable information that these offer in the health and welfare of people. Aspects such as nutrition, skin health, or personality are closely linked to one’s genetics, so finding out what it says about one’s genetics can be very beneficial in improving one’s day-to-day life. As a result of this increase in the number of genetic tests, different genetic testing methods have also been developed to detect abnormalities in DNA [1].

 

There are different types of genetic tests: carrier screening tests, prenatal diagnostic tests, etc. In this case, we focus on predictive or genetic predisposition tests. 

 

Predictive tests can identify the risk that people have of suffering from a certain disease before the symptoms of the disease appear. To do this, the genetic predisposition to the disease is analyzed, identifying the mutations that increase the risk of suffering it, as for example with some types of cancer. This type of testing is useful in those cases in which the disease has been suffered in different relatives, especially in those diseases with a method available to prevent the onset of the disease or minimize the severity of the disease [1].

 

There are different genetic testing methods to discover different aspects about genetics, but which ones do we use at GalaxyDNA to perform our complete reports?

 

GalaxyDNA: our genetic testing methods

Among the different genetic testing methods that exist, at GalaxyDNA we have selected those that can provide us with the specific results for our areas within the report: ancestry, skin care and personality, among others. 

 

GWAS

The GWAS (Genome Wide Association Study) method is based on comparing the DNA of people with a certain trait or disease, with people who do not have it, looking for genetic differences. In this way, the mutations that predispose to having that trait or suffering from the disease in question are identified. Based on statistical methods, we can detect whether other people have such mutations and thus identify their genetic predisposition. In this method of genetic testing, a large number of genes are taken into account that are not directly related to that trait or disease, but their sum can provide a relevant conclusion.

 

Multivariate analysis

In this case, the mutations in the genes being analyzed have a much more direct relationship to the trait or disease in question. 

 

Single-variate analysis

In this type of methodology it is a single variant of a single gene that determines the trait, because of its strong relationship with the genotype.

 

Autosomal DNA test: the key to knowing your ancestry

One’s genetics is contained in DNA, which, in turn, is stored in chromosomes. Chromosomes are indispensable elements in the storage and expression of hereditary material, as they are transmitted from fathers and mothers to sons and daughters. Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes (46 chromosomes in total), of these, half come from the father and half from the mother. The so-called sex chromosomes are those related to gender (male or female). The remaining 22 are called autosomal chromosomes [2]. In conclusion, autosomal DNA is the set of chromosomes inherited from the father and mother, discarding the sex chromosomes.

 

The autosomal DNA test analyzes these 22 pairs of autosomes, so that it is possible to determine who the close relatives are, going back even generations.  This is because autosomal DNA is inherited from the father and mother, who in turn inherited it from their parents, and so on down the generations for hundreds or even thousands of years. For an ancestry result, this autosomal DNA test is performed because it is rich in information about genealogy and can determine ethnic ancestry [2]. 

 

What’s the best genetic algorithm?

As the number of genetic tests is increasing, and new methodologies for analysis and research are being developed, new genetic algorithms are also being created [3].

 

At GalaxyDNA we have developed our own algorithms. These are the basis for obtaining all the information that appears in our genetic report. They are based on a study of thousands of scientific articles, contrasted, validated, recognized and published by the scientific community at an international level. In this way, we ensure that our reports are scientifically rigorous.

 

To obtain our genetic algorithms we have used these genetic studies, published in certain databases through scientific institutions and organizations. The result of this is the creation of an algorithm that allows us to apply scientific conclusions to the data obtained through the DNA of each client, thus obtaining a completely personalized and scientifically validated report.

 

In addition, our algorithms first identify your gender and ancestry, and then we apply studies that are uniquely suited to your profile. In short, if you compare our genetic tests with other companies, you will see that GalaxyDNA is undoubtedly the most comprehensive on the market. 

 

As you can see, there is a wide variety of genetic testing methods. At GalaxyDNA we have selected the best developed methods and algorithms that provide us with the most valuable information about your genetics, thus producing a comprehensive report of results on ancestry, nutrition, skin care, pharmacogenetics, health, sports and personality, all in one kit! Buy our DNA testing kit and find out what your DNA says about you.

 

Bibliography

  1. Genetic Alliance. (2009). Cómo entender la genética: Una guía para pacientes y profesionales médicos en la región de Nueva York y el Atlántico Medio. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK132207/
  2. MedlinePlus. Autosomal dominant. https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002049.htm 

Pablo Estevez. Optimización mediante algoritmos genéticos. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Pablo-Estevez-2/publication/228708779_Optimizacion_Mediante_Algoritmos_Geneticos/links/0912f51111f82b2a61000000/Optimizacion-Mediante-Algoritmos-Geneticos.pdf

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